How to Use a Perpetual Stock System for Your Business
A perpetual stock system is a method of managing your inventory that continuously records the changes in your stock levels. Unlike a periodic stock system, which requires physical counts of inventory at regular intervals, a perpetual stock system tracks inventory in real time using electronic devices such as barcode scanners or point-of-sale systems.
A perpetual stock system is a method of managing your inventory that continuously records the changes in your stock levels.
A perpetual stock system can help you improve your inventory accuracy, reduce stockouts, and streamline your accounting processes.
A perpetual stock system requires a sophisticated inventory management software that can integrate with other business systems.
A perpetual stock system can help you improve your inventory accuracy, reduce stockouts, and streamline your accounting processes. In this article, we will explain what a perpetual stock system is, how it works, and what benefits it can offer to your business.
What Is a Perpetual Stock System?
A perpetual stock system is a type of inventory valuation that uses electronic tracking systems to continually record inventory changes. It provides a running balance of the cost of goods available for sale and the cost of goods sold for a period.
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Under a perpetual stock system, no purchases account is maintained because the inventory account is directly debited with each purchase of merchandise. Similarly, no cost of goods sold account is maintained because the inventory account is directly credited with each sale of merchandise. The inventory account is adjusted for any discounts, returns, or allowances related to purchases or sales.
A perpetual stock system requires a sophisticated inventory management software that can integrate with other business systems, such as accounting, finance, and sales. The software can provide real-time updates on inventory levels, costs, and values. It can also generate reports and alerts on inventory performance, such as turnover rate, gross margin, and reorder point.
How Does a Perpetual Stock System Work?
A perpetual stock system works by recording every transaction that affects the inventory in real time. For example, when a business purchases new inventory from a supplier, it records the following entry in its accounting system:
Inventory (Debit) xxx
Cash or Accounts Payable (Credit) xxx
This entry increases the inventory balance by the cost of the purchased goods and decreases the cash or accounts payable balance by the same amount.
When a business sells inventory to a customer, it records the following entry in its accounting system:
Cash or Accounts Receivable (Debit) xxx
Sales Revenue (Credit) xxx
Cost of Goods Sold (Debit) xxx
Inventory (Credit) xxx
This entry increases the cash or accounts receivable balance by the sales price of the sold goods and increases the sales revenue balance by the same amount. It also increases the cost of goods sold balance by the cost of the sold goods and decreases the inventory balance by the same amount.
The perpetual stock system keeps track of the inventory balance after each transaction. The ending inventory balance at any point in time can be obtained by looking at the inventory account in the accounting system. The cost of goods sold for a period can be obtained by adding up all the cost of goods sold entries recorded during that period.
What Are the Benefits of a Perpetual Stock System?
A perpetual stock system can offer several benefits to your business, such as:
- Improved inventory accuracy: A perpetual stock system can help you avoid errors and discrepancies in your inventory records by updating them in real time. You can have a clear and accurate view of your inventory levels, costs, and values at any time.
- Reduced stockouts: A perpetual stock system can help you prevent running out of stock by alerting you when your inventory reaches a reorder point. You can replenish your inventory in time to meet customer demand and avoid losing sales.
- Streamlined accounting processes: A perpetual stock system can help you simplify your accounting processes by eliminating the need for physical counts of inventory and adjusting entries at the end of each period. You can save time and resources on inventory management and focus on other aspects of your business.
- Enhanced decision making: A perpetual stock system can help you make better decisions for your business by providing you with real-time data and reports on your inventory performance. You can analyze your inventory turnover rate, gross margin, and profitability. You can also identify slow-moving or obsolete items and optimize your inventory mix.
- Choose an inventory management software that suits your business needs and budget.
- Train your staff on how to use the inventory management software and devices correctly and efficiently.
- Conduct periodic physical counts of inventory to check for any discrepancies or errors in the inventory records.
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Perpetual Stock System: A Trend in Inventory Management
Inventory management is a crucial aspect of any business that deals with physical goods. It involves tracking the quantity, location, and value of the products that a business owns and sells. Inventory management can affect the profitability, cash flow, and customer satisfaction of a business.
There are different methods of inventory management, but one that is gaining popularity in recent years is the perpetual stock system. This system uses electronic devices, such as barcode scanners or point-of-sale systems, to record every change in inventory in real time. This way, the business always knows how much inventory it has on hand, without the need for periodic physical counts.
Benefits of Perpetual Stock System
The perpetual stock system has several advantages over other methods of inventory management, such as the periodic system, which relies on manual counts at regular intervals. Some of the benefits of the perpetual stock system are:
- Accuracy: The perpetual stock system reduces the risk of errors, discrepancies, or fraud in inventory records. It also eliminates the need for adjustments or write-offs due to inventory shrinkage or obsolescence.
- Efficiency: The perpetual stock system saves time and resources by automating the inventory recording process. It also reduces the need for storage space and handling costs by optimizing inventory levels and avoiding overstocking or understocking.
- Visibility: The perpetual stock system provides real-time information on inventory availability, movement, and valuation. It also allows for easy integration with other business systems, such as accounting, finance, or production. This enhances decision making and planning for inventory-related activities.
- Customer satisfaction: The perpetual stock system improves customer service by ensuring that products are always in stock and ready to be delivered. It also enables faster and more accurate order fulfillment and invoicing.
Challenges of Perpetual Stock System
Despite its benefits, the perpetual stock system also has some challenges that need to be addressed by businesses that adopt it. Some of the challenges are:
- Cost: The perpetual stock system requires investment in hardware, software, and training to implement and maintain. It also requires regular maintenance and updates to ensure reliability and security.
- Compliance: The perpetual stock system must comply with various rules and regulations regarding inventory reporting and taxation. It also must adhere to industry standards and best practices for inventory management.
- Control: The perpetual stock system depends on human input and intervention to ensure accuracy and completeness. It also requires regular audits and verification to detect and correct any errors or discrepancies.
The perpetual stock system is a modern method of inventory management that offers many advantages over traditional methods. It enables businesses to track their inventory in real time and improve their operational efficiency and customer satisfaction. However, it also poses some challenges that need to be overcome by careful planning and execution.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q: What is the difference between a perpetual stock system and a periodic stock system?
A: A perpetual stock system continuously records inventory changes in real time using electronic devices, while a periodic stock system records inventory changes at regular intervals using physical counts.
Q: What are some examples of businesses that use a perpetual stock system?
A: Some examples of businesses that use a perpetual stock system are supermarkets, pharmacies, online retailers, and manufacturing companies.
Q: What are some challenges or limitations of using a perpetual stock system?
A: Some challenges or limitations of using a perpetual stock system are the high cost of implementing and maintaining the inventory management software and devices, the risk of data loss or corruption due to system failures or cyberattacks, and the need for periodic physical counts to verify the accuracy of the inventory records.
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