Turkish Customs Tariff, A Complete Guide

Turkish Customs Tariff, A Complete Guide

How to Save Money on Turkish Customs Tariff: A Complete Guide

Turkey is a popular destination for travelers, exporters, and importers alike. But before you pack your bags or ship your goods, you need to know about the Turkish customs tariff and how it affects your budget.

The Turkish customs tariff is a system of taxes and fees that apply to goods entering or leaving Turkey. The tariff rates vary depending on the type and origin of the goods, as well as the trade agreements that Turkey has with other countries.

In this article, we will explain what the Turkish customs tariff is, how it works, and how you can save money on it. Whether you are a tourist, a business owner, or an online shopper, this guide will help you avoid paying more than you have to.

What is the Turkish Customs Tariff?

The Turkish customs tariff is a list of codes and rates that determine how much tax and duty you have to pay when you import or export goods to or from Turkey. The tariff is based on the Harmonized System (HS), an international standard for classifying goods.

The HS consists of 21 sections, 96 chapters, and thousands of subheadings that cover all kinds of products, from live animals to machinery to artworks. Each product has a six-digit code that identifies its category, subcategory, and specific characteristics.

For example, the code for fresh apples is 0808.10, where 08 is the chapter for edible fruits and nuts, 08 is the subheading for apples, pears, and quinces, and 10 is the further subheading for fresh apples.

The Turkish customs tariff assigns a specific rate of tax and duty to each HS code, depending on the origin of the goods and the trade agreements that Turkey has with other countries. The rate can be expressed as a percentage of the value of the goods, a fixed amount per unit of weight or quantity, or a combination of both.

For example, the rate for fresh apples from the European Union (EU) is 44.8%, while the rate for fresh apples from other countries is 53.3%. This means that if you import 100 kg of fresh apples from the EU, you have to pay 44.8 euros in tax and duty, while if you import 100 kg of fresh apples from another country, you have to pay 53.3 euros in tax and duty.


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How to Calculate the Turkish Customs Tariff?

To calculate how much tax and duty you have to pay when you import or export goods to or from Turkey, you need to follow these steps:

1. Identify the HS code of your goods

You can use online tools such as the World Customs Organization’s HS Database or the Turkish Ministry of Trade’s Tariff-Tr Online System to find the code that matches your product description.

2. Check the origin of your goods

You need to know where your goods were produced or obtained, as this affects the tariff rate. You may also need to provide a certificate of origin to prove the origin of your goods.

3. Check the trade agreements that Turkey has with other countries

Turkey is a member of several regional and bilateral trade agreements that grant preferential tariff rates to certain countries or groups of countries. For example, Turkey has a customs union with the EU, which means that most goods can be traded between Turkey and the EU without any tax or duty. You can find a list of Turkey’s trade agreements on the website of the Ministry of Trade.

4. Apply the relevant tariff rate to your goods

You can use the Tariff-Tr Online System to find the rate that applies to your HS code and origin. You need to multiply the rate by the value of your goods (in euros) to get the amount of tax and duty you have to pay.

5. Add any other fees or charges that may apply

Depending on the type and value of your goods, you may also have to pay additional fees or charges, such as value-added tax (VAT), special consumption tax (SCT), anti-dumping duty, safeguard duty, or inspection fee. You can find more information on these fees and charges on the website of the Ministry of Trade.

How to Save Money on Turkish Customs Tariff?

There are several ways you can save money on Turkish customs tariff when you import or export goods to or from Turkey. Here are some tips:

Choose products with lower tariff rates. You can compare different products and their tariff rates using the Tariff-Tr Online System. You may find that some products have lower rates than others within the same category or subcategory.

Choose products from countries with preferential tariff rates. You can check if your country or region has a trade agreement with Turkey that grants lower tariff rates for certain products. You may also benefit from preferential rates if your country is classified as a developing country or a least developed country by Turkey.

Apply for tariff exemptions or reductions. You may be eligible for tariff exemptions or reductions if your goods meet certain criteria, such as being intended for personal use, being samples or gifts, being temporary imports or exports, or being subject to inward or outward processing. You can find more information on the conditions and procedures for tariff exemptions or reductions on the website of the Ministry of Trade.

Use a reliable customs broker or agent. You can hire a professional customs broker or agent to handle the customs clearance process for you. They can help you classify your goods, calculate the tariff, prepare the documents, and pay the fees. They can also advise you on how to save money on Turkish customs tariff and avoid any penalties or delays.


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Turkish Customs Tariff and Global Demand

Introduction

The Turkish Customs Tariff is a system of classification and taxation of imported and exported goods based on the Harmonized System (HS) of the World Customs Organization. The Turkish Customs Tariff Statistics Positions (GTIP) consist of 12 digits, indicating the HS code, the Combined Nomenclature code of the European Union, the national subheadings, and the statistical codes. The GTIP determines the customs duties and foreign trade measures applicable to different products.

Trends in Turkish Customs Tariff

According to the Decision 3351 published in the Official Gazette dated December 31, 2020, Turkey has imposed additional customs duties on certain products ranging from 1.9% to 50%. These products include textiles, apparel, footwear, leather goods, furniture, ceramics, glassware, machinery, electrical equipment, vehicles, and some agricultural products. The additional duties aim to protect the domestic industry from foreign competition and to reduce the current account deficit.

However, Turkey also has some preferential trade agreements with various countries and regions that allow lower or zero customs duties for certain products. For example, Turkey has a customs union with the European Union since 1996, which eliminates customs duties and quotas for industrial goods and processed agricultural products. Turkey also has free trade agreements with 29 countries, including EFTA countries, Israel, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, South Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and the UK.

Impact on Global Demand

The Turkish Customs Tariff affects the global demand for Turkish products and for products imported to Turkey. On one hand, the additional customs duties may reduce the demand for foreign products in Turkey, especially if there are domestic substitutes available at lower prices. This may negatively affect the trade partners of Turkey and their export revenues. On the other hand, the preferential trade agreements may increase the demand for Turkish products in foreign markets, especially in the European Union, which is Turkey’s largest trading partner. This may positively affect Turkey’s export performance and economic growth.

However, the global demand for Turkish products and for products imported to Turkey also depends on other factors, such as quality, competitiveness, innovation, consumer preferences, exchange rates, transport costs, non-tariff barriers, and geopolitical risks. Therefore, the Turkish Customs Tariff is not the only determinant of global demand in this industry.

The Turkish Customs Tariff is a complex system of classification and taxation of imported and exported goods that reflects Turkey’s trade policy objectives and commitments. The Turkish Customs Tariff influences the global demand for Turkish products and for products imported to Turkey by affecting their relative prices and competitiveness. However, the global demand also depends on other factors that are beyond the scope of this blog post.

References:

https://ecomod.net/sites/default/files/document-conference/ecomod2003/Neyapti.pdf

http://repository.bilkent.edu.tr/bitstream/11693/37085/1/Twenty%20Years%20of%20the%20EU-Turkey%20Customs%20Union%20A%20SyntheticControl%20Method%20Analysis.pdf

https://www.trade.gov.tr/customs-formalities/frequently-asked-questions/tariff
https://ggm.ticaret.gov.tr/data/5dedfe4d13b876e93804ba65/e7f55410a6f228d51deeb2081cf05a4b.pdf
https://www.trade.gov/textile-and-apparel-market-report-turkey
https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=0105a27f-b122-4846-8967-c4154c4bed07
https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/Turkey.pdf

https://hs.wcoomd.org/en

https://tariff-tr.gov.tr/Home

https://ticaret.gov.tr/trade-policy/trade-agreement



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