Wheat Area and Production in World: A Comprehensive Analysis
Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, providing food and feed for humans and animals. Wheat is also a major commodity in international trade, with more than 200 million tonnes exported annually. In this article, we will examine the trends and patterns of wheat area, production and productivity in the world, based on the latest data from various sources.
Global wheat area
According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the global wheat area was 215.91 million hectares (Mha) in 2019, slightly higher than 214.94 Mha in 2000. The top five countries with the largest wheat area were China (24.1 Mha), India (29.9 Mha), Russia (28.7 Mha), United States (18.5 Mha) and Canada (10.2 Mha). These five countries accounted for 52% of the global wheat area in 2019 .
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Global wheat production
The global wheat production was 765.77 million tonnes (Mt) in 2019, significantly higher than 585 Mt in 2000. The top five countries with the highest wheat production were China (133.6 Mt), India (103.6 Mt), Russia (74.5 Mt), United States (52.3 Mt) and France (40.6 Mt). These five countries accounted for 53% of the global wheat production in 2019 .
Global average wheat productivity
The global average wheat productivity was 3547 kg/ha in 2019, an increase of 30% from 2722 kg/ha in 2000. The top five countries with the highest wheat productivity were New Zealand (8728 kg/ha), Ireland (8513 kg/ha), Netherlands (8388 kg/ha), United Kingdom (8164 kg/ha) and Germany (7864 kg/ha). These five countries had more than double the global average wheat productivity in 2019 .
Trends and patterns of wheat area
The trends and patterns of wheat area, production and productivity vary across different regions and countries, depending on various factors such as climate, soil, irrigation, technology, policies and markets. Some regions have experienced a decline in wheat area due to competition from other crops, urbanization or environmental constraints, while others have expanded their wheat area due to favorable conditions or incentives. Some regions have achieved a rapid growth in wheat production due to improved yields or increased area, while others have faced stagnation or decline due to biotic or abiotic stresses or low profitability. Some regions have attained a high level of wheat productivity due to advanced technology or intensive management, while others have lagged behind due to low input use or poor practices .
Wheat is a vital crop for food security and economic development in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries where it contributes to about 20% of the total dietary energy and protein intake . Therefore, it is important to monitor and analyze the trends and patterns of wheat area, production and productivity in the world, and to identify the opportunities and challenges for enhancing wheat production sustainably and efficiently.
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Wheat Area and Production in the World
Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, grown on more land area than any other food crop and traded more than any other crop. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the global wheat area was 215.91 million hectares in 2019, with a total production of 765.77 million tonnes and an average productivity of 3547 kg/ha .
Trends in Wheat Area, Production and Productivity
The global wheat area has shown a slight increase over the last two decades, from 214.94 million hectares in 2000 to 215.91 million hectares in 2019, with some fluctuations in between. The largest wheat-producing countries are China, India, Russia, the United States and France, which together account for more than half of the world’s wheat area .
The global wheat production has shown a significant increase over the same period, from 585 million tonnes in 2000 to 765.77 million tonnes in 2019, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. The main drivers of this increase are improved yields and expanded irrigation. The highest wheat-producing countries are China, India, Russia, the United States and France, which together account for more than half of the world’s wheat production .
The global wheat productivity has also shown a significant increase over the last two decades, from 2722 kg/ha in 2000 to 3547 kg/ha in 2019, with an annual growth rate of 1.4%. The main factors contributing to this increase are improved varieties, better agronomic practices, increased fertilizer use and pest management. The highest wheat-productivity countries are New Zealand, Ireland, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and Germany, which have yields above 8000 kg/ha .
Implications for Global Demand and Trade
The increasing trend in global wheat production and productivity reflects the growing demand for wheat as a staple food and as an ingredient for animal feed and industrial products. According to the FAO, the global wheat consumption was 749.8 million tonnes in 2019/20, with an average per capita consumption of 97 kg. The main consumers of wheat are China, India, the European Union, Russia and the United States, which together account for more than half of the world’s wheat consumption .
The global wheat trade is also increasing over time, as some countries produce more than they consume and others consume more than they produce. According to the International Grains Council (IGC), the global wheat trade was 180 million tonnes in 2019/20, with an average export price of $212 per tonne. The main exporters of wheat are Russia, the European Union, Canada, the United States and Australia, which together account for more than three-quarters of the world’s wheat exports. The main importers of wheat are Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, Brazil and Bangladesh, which together account for more than one-third of the world’s wheat imports .
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