Wheat Production in World, How It Affects Global Food Security

Wheat Production in World

How Wheat Production in the World Affects Global Food Security

Wheat is one of the most important staple crops in the world, providing food for billions of people and feed for livestock. Wheat production is influenced by many factors, such as climate, soil, pests, diseases, and market demand. In this article, we will explore how wheat production in the world affects global food security, and what challenges and opportunities lie ahead for wheat farmers and consumers.

Wheat production in the world: current status and trends

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the global production of wheat in 2020 was 760 million tons, an increase of 1.4% from 2019. China, India, and Russia were the three largest wheat producers in the world, accounting for about 41% of the total wheat production. The United States was the fourth-largest wheat producer, followed by France, Ukraine, Australia, Pakistan, Canada, and Germany. The top ten wheat-producing countries accounted for about 75% of the global wheat output.

The global wheat consumption in 2020 was estimated at 755 million tons, slightly lower than the production level. The main wheat-consuming regions were Asia, Europe, Africa, and North America. Wheat is mainly used for human consumption as bread, pasta, noodles, biscuits, cakes, and other products. Wheat is also used for animal feed, especially in regions where maize is scarce or expensive. In addition, wheat is used for industrial purposes, such as biofuels, starches, and gluten.

The global wheat trade in 2020 was projected at 188 million tons, a record high level. The main wheat-exporting countries were Russia, the United States, Canada, Ukraine, France, Australia, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Romania, and Germany. The main wheat-importing countries were Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey, Brazil, Bangladesh, Algeria, Morocco, Iran, Vietnam, and Nigeria. The global wheat trade is influenced by various factors, such as production fluctuations, price volatility, trade policies, quality standards, and transportation costs.

Wheat production in the world: challenges and opportunities

Some of the major challenges are:

Climate change:

Climate change poses a threat to wheat production by altering the temperature, precipitation, and CO2 levels that affect crop growth and development. Climate change can also increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods, heat waves, frosts, and storms that can damage wheat crops. Climate change can also affect the distribution and severity of pests and diseases that can reduce wheat yields and quality.

Land degradation:

Land degradation refers to the loss of soil fertility and productivity due to erosion, salinization, acidification, compaction, nutrient depletion, pollution, and other factors. Land degradation can reduce the area and quality of land suitable for wheat cultivation and increase the input costs and environmental impacts of wheat production.

Water scarcity:

Water scarcity refers to the lack of sufficient water resources to meet the demand for various uses, such as agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption. Water scarcity can limit the availability and quality of irrigation water for wheat production and increase the competition and conflict over water resources among different users and regions.

Population growth:

Population growth refers to the increase in the number of people living on Earth. Population growth can increase the demand for food, especially in developing regions where wheat is a major staple crop. Population growth can also increase the pressure on land, water, and other natural resources that are essential for wheat production.

Food waste:

Food waste refers to the loss or discarding of food that is fit for human consumption along the food supply chain, from production to consumption. Food waste can reduce the efficiency and sustainability of wheat production and increase the environmental impacts and economic costs of food systems. Food waste can also contribute to food insecurity, hunger, and malnutrition among vulnerable populations.

Despite these challenges, wheat production in the world also has many opportunities to improve its performance and resilience in the future.

Some of the major opportunities are:


Innovation refers to the development and adoption of new technologies, practices, and policies that can enhance wheat production and utilization. Innovation can include improved varieties that are more productive, resistant, and adaptable to different environments; precision agriculture that can optimize input use and output quality; digital agriculture that can use data and information technologies to monitor and manage crop conditions; biotechnology that can modify crop traits and characteristics; and circular agriculture that can reduce waste and recycle resources.


Cooperation refers to the collaboration and coordination among different actors and stakeholders involved in wheat production and trade. Cooperation can include public-private partnerships that can mobilize resources and expertise; regional integration that can facilitate market access and trade flows; international cooperation that can support research and development; and farmer organizations that can enhance collective action and bargaining power.


Education refers to the provision and acquisition of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve wheat production and consumption. Education can include formal education that can increase the literacy and numeracy of farmers and consumers; extension services that can disseminate best practices and innovations; awareness campaigns that can promote healthy and sustainable diets; and capacity building that can empower women and youth.


Conservation refers to the protection and restoration of natural resources and ecosystems that are vital for wheat production and biodiversity. Conservation can include sustainable land management that can prevent and reverse land degradation; water management that can improve water use efficiency and quality; climate-smart agriculture that can mitigate and adapt to climate change; integrated pest management that can reduce chemical use and pest resistance; and agroecology that can enhance ecological functions and services.

Wheat production in the world: implications for global food security

Wheat production in the world has significant implications for global food security,
which is defined as the situation when all people have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and preferences for an active and healthy life. Wheat production in the world affects global food security in four dimensions:

1. Availability:

Availability refers to the quantity and quality of food that is produced, stored, distributed, and traded in the world. Wheat production in the world contributes to food availability by supplying a large number of calories, protein, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that are essential for human health and well-being. Wheat production in the world also affects food availability by influencing food prices, incomes,
and trade balances that determine the affordability and accessibility of food for different groups and regions.

2. Access:

Access refers to the ability and opportunity of people to acquire and consume food that meets their preferences and needs. Wheat production in the world affects food access by providing a diverse and adaptable crop that can be grown in different agroecological zones and climatic conditions, and processed into various products and dishes that suit different tastes and cultures. Wheat production in the world also affects food access by creating employment and income opportunities for millions of farmers, workers, traders, processors, and retailers along the wheat value chain, and by supporting social protection and safety net programs that can assist vulnerable and poor populations.

3. Utilization:

Utilization refers to the biological and social processes that determine how food is absorbed and used by the body for growth, development, and health. Wheat production in the world affects food utilization by offering a nutritious and safe food source that can prevent and treat various forms of malnutrition, such as undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, overweight, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Wheat production in the world also affects food utilization by enhancing food quality and safety standards, practices, and regulations that can reduce food losses, contamination, spoilage, and poisoning.

4. Stability:

Stability refers to the consistency and reliability of food availability, access, and utilization over time and across different situations. Wheat production in the world affects food stability by ensuring a stable supply of wheat throughout the year, especially during periods of seasonal or cyclical scarcity or surplus. Wheat production in the world also affects food stability by increasing the resilience of wheat systems to shocks and stresses, such as weather variability, pest outbreaks, market fluctuations, conflicts, disasters, and pandemics.

Wheat production in the world is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that has profound implications for global food security. Wheat production in the world faces many challenges but also offers many opportunities to improve its performance and resilience in the future. Wheat production in the world requires innovation, cooperation, education, and conservation to enhance its contribution to food availability, access, utilization, and stability for all people.

Wheat Production in the World: Trends and Challenges

Wheat is one of the most important staple crops in the world, providing food and feed for billions of people and animals. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the global production of wheat amounted to over 781 million metric tons in 2022/2023, an increase from the previous year. China, India, and Russia are the three largest wheat producers in the world, accounting for about 41% of the world’s total wheat production. However, wheat production faces many challenges, such as climate change, pests and diseases, water scarcity, and market volatility.

Wheat Production in the World: Drivers and Constraints

The demand for wheat is driven by population growth, income growth, urbanization, and changing consumer preferences. Wheat is consumed in various forms, such as bread, pasta, noodles, biscuits, cakes, and pastries. Wheat is also used as animal feed, especially for poultry and pigs. The FAO estimates that the global wheat consumption will reach 791 million metric tons by 2029, an increase of 11% from 2019. The main consumers of wheat are China, India, the European Union, Russia, and the United States.

The supply of wheat is constrained by several factors, such as land availability, soil fertility, water availability, input costs, labor availability, and environmental regulations. Wheat production is also affected by climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, droughts, floods, frosts, and heat waves. Wheat is susceptible to various pests and diseases, such as rusts, fusarium head blight, aphids, hessian fly, and wheat stem sawfly. Wheat production also faces market risks, such as price fluctuations, trade barriers, subsidies, tariffs, and quality standards.

Wheat Production in the World: Opportunities and Challenges

To meet the growing demand for wheat and overcome the constraints on supply, wheat production needs to increase its productivity and sustainability. This requires investments in research and development (R&D), innovation, extension services, infrastructure, and policies. Some of the opportunities for improving wheat production include:

  • Developing new varieties of wheat that are high-yielding, resilient to stress conditions, resistant to pests and diseases, and adaptable to different agro-ecological zones.
  • Adopting improved agronomic practices that enhance soil health, water use efficiency, nutrient management, pest and disease management, weed control, and crop rotation.
  • Using digital technologies that enable precision agriculture, such as remote sensing, drones, sensors, artificial intelligence (AI), big data analytics (BDA), blockchain (BC), internet of things (IoT), etc.
  • Promoting value addition and diversification of wheat products that cater to different consumer preferences and market segments.
  • Strengthening linkages among stakeholders along the wheat value chain (WVC), such as farmers (F), input suppliers (IS), processors (P), traders (T), retailers (R), consumers (C), etc.
  • Enhancing cooperation and coordination among countries and regions that produce and consume wheat to facilitate trade flows (TF), information exchange (IE), technology transfer (TT), policy harmonization (PH), etc.

However, there are also challenges that need to be addressed to realize these opportunities. Some of these challenges include:

  • Lack of adequate funding for R&D activities that generate new knowledge and technologies for wheat production.
  • Low adoption rate of improved varieties and practices by farmers due to lack of awareness (LA), access (A), affordability (AF), or suitability (S).
  • High cost of inputs and labor that reduce profitability and competitiveness of wheat production.
  • Lack of adequate infrastructure that hampers transportation (T), storage (S), processing (P), marketing (M), etc.
  • Lack of supportive policies that create an enabling environment for wheat production.
  • Lack of effective institutions that ensure quality control (QC), food safety (FS), traceability (TR), etc.









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