Durum Wheat Production By Country

Durum Wheat Production By Country

How Canada, Russia, and Ukraine Lead the World in Durum Wheat Production

Durum wheat is a type of wheat that is used to make pasta, couscous, and other products. It is also known as pasta wheat or macaroni wheat. Durum wheat is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, but it only accounts for 5% to 8% of global wheat production.

Durum wheat is grown mainly in dry and temperate regions, such as the Mediterranean basin, North America, and Central Asia. It has a hard and dense endosperm, which makes it resistant to milling and gives it a high protein content. However, durum wheat is not a strong wheat in terms of gluten formation, which means that its dough is weak or soft.

In this article, we will look at the top producers, exporters, and importers of durum wheat in the world, based on the latest data . We will also explore some of the factors that affect durum wheat production and trade, such as weather, demand, and prices.

Top Producers of Durum Wheat

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the global durum wheat production in 2021/22 is estimated at 33.9 million metric tons (MMT), which is a 10% increase from the previous year. This is mainly due to higher production in North America, where favorable weather conditions boosted yields and area harvested.

The top three producers of durum wheat in the world are Canada, Russia, and Ukraine, which together account for more than half of the global output.


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Canada

Canada is the largest producer of durum wheat, with an estimated production of 7.5 MMT in 2021/22, up by 76% from the previous year. Canada grows durum wheat mainly in the prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.

Russia

Russia is the second-largest producer of durum wheat, with an estimated production of 6.5 MMT in 2021/22, up by 18% from the previous year. Russia grows durum wheat mainly in the southern regions of Krasnodar, Stavropol, Rostov, and Volgograd.

Ukraine

Ukraine is the third-largest producer of durum wheat, with an estimated production of 5.5 MMT in 2021/22, up by 38% from the previous year. Ukraine grows durum wheat mainly in the central and eastern regions of Poltava, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhia, and Donetsk.

Other significant producers of durum wheat include Turkey (3.5 MMT), Italy (3.4 MMT), France (2.8 MMT), United States (2.1 MMT), Spain (1.6 MMT), Kazakhstan (1.4 MMT), and Australia (0.9 MMT).

Top Exporters and Importers of Durum Wheat

According to the Observatory of Economic Complexity (OEC), durum wheat is the world’s 381st most traded product, with a total trade value of $9.4 billion in 2021. The top five exporters of durum wheat in 2021 are Canada ($1.78 billion), Russia ($1.7 billion), Ukraine ($1.15 billion), United States ($772 million), and Romania ($541 million).

The top five importers of durum wheat in 2021 are Nigeria ($1.58 billion), Egypt ($1.35 billion), Italy ($898 million), Saudi Arabia ($608 million), and Ethiopia ($528 million).

The main destinations for Canadian durum wheat exports are Italy, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, and Turkey. The main destinations for Russian durum wheat exports are Egypt, Turkey, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Bangladesh. The main destinations for Ukrainian durum wheat exports are Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Libya.

The main sources for Nigerian durum wheat imports are Russia, Canada, Ukraine, United States, and Romania. The main sources for Egyptian durum wheat imports are Russia, Ukraine, Canada, Kazakhstan, and Romania. The main sources for Italian durum wheat imports are Canada, United States, France, Australia, and Turkey.

Factors Affecting Durum Wheat Production and Trade

Durum wheat production and trade are influenced by various factors, such as weather, demand, prices, policies, and quality.

Weather

Weather is one of the most important factors that affect durum wheat production, as it determines the yield potential, the pest and disease pressure, and the quality characteristics of the grain. Durum wheat is sensitive to drought, heat, frost, and hail, which can reduce its quantity and quality. For example, in 2020/21, severe drought and heat in North America and Europe caused a sharp decline in durum wheat production and quality, leading to tight supplies and high prices.

Demand

Demand is another factor that affects durum wheat production and trade, as it reflects the consumption patterns and preferences of the end-users. Durum wheat is mainly used to make pasta, couscous, and other products that are popular in the Mediterranean region, North Africa, and the Middle East. Durum wheat demand is also influenced by the population growth, the income level, the dietary habits, and the health awareness of the consumers. For example, in recent years, there has been an increasing demand for organic, whole grain, and gluten-free durum wheat products in some markets.

Prices

Prices are another factor that affects durum wheat production and trade, as they signal the profitability and competitiveness of the crop. Durum wheat prices are determined by the interaction of supply and demand
on the global and local markets. Durum wheat prices are also influenced by the prices of other crops, such as common wheat, corn, and barley, which can affect the planting decisions and the substitution effects of the farmers and the consumers. For example, in 2021/22, durum wheat prices have been rising due to the tight global supply situation and the strong demand from some importers.


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Policies

Policies are another factor that affects durum wheat production and trade, as they regulate the production incentives, the trade barriers, the quality standards, and the food security objectives of the countries involved. Durum wheat policies can include tariffs, quotas, subsidies, taxes, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, quality regulations, and export restrictions. For example, in 2021/22, Kazakhstan imposed a temporary ban on wheat exports until September to ensure domestic food security amid rising prices.

Quality

Quality is another factor that affects durum wheat production and trade, as it determines the suitability and value of the grain for different end-uses. Durum wheat quality is measured by various parameters, such as protein content, gluten strength, vitreousness, color, moisture, test weight, and purity. Durum wheat quality is influenced by the genetic traits, the agronomic practices, and the environmental conditions of the crop. Durum wheat quality is also affected by the post-harvest handling, storage, processing, and marketing of the grain. For example, in 2020/21, poor weather conditions in North America and Europe resulted in low-quality durum wheat with low protein, low vitreousness, high moisture, and high disease levels.

Durum wheat is a type of wheat that is used to make pasta, couscous, and other products. It is grown mainly in dry and temperate regions, such as Canada, Russia, Ukraine, Turkey, Italy, France, United States, Spain, Kazakhstan, and Australia. Durum wheat production and trade are influenced by various factors, such as weather, demand, prices, policies, and quality. Durum wheat production in 2021/22 is expected to increase by 10% to 33.9 MMT, while durum wheat trade in 2021 is valued at $9.4 billion. Durum wheat is an important crop for global food security and nutrition.

Durum Wheat Production by Country

Durum wheat is a type of wheat that is used for making pasta, couscous and other products. It is the second most cultivated species of wheat after common wheat, but it represents only 5% to 8% of global wheat production. Durum wheat originated in the Near East and Central Europe around 7000 BC and is adapted to dry and hot climates.

Top Exporters and Importers of Durum Wheat

According to the Observatory of Economic Complexity, durum wheat is the world’s 381st most traded product. In 2021, the top exporters of durum wheat were:

  • Canada ($1.78B)
  • Russia ($1.7B)
  • Ukraine ($1.15B)
  • United States ($772M)
  • Romania ($541M)

The top importers of durum wheat were:

  • Nigeria ($1.58B)
  • Egypt ($1.35B)
  • Italy ($898M)
  • Saudi Arabia ($608M)
  • Ethiopia ($528M)

Global Durum Wheat Production Outlook

Global durum wheat production is expected to rebound in 2022/23, but stocks are likely to remain tight this season. Total durum wheat production in 2022/23 is expected to increase 10% to 33.9 million tons, led by increases in the United States, Canada, and Mexico.

However, production across Europe and North Africa is expected to fall due to dry weather and drought. The European Union is forecast to produce 7.0 million tons of durum wheat, the lowest since 1997. Italy, the largest European durum user, is expected to produce 3.4 million tons, 2.6 million tons short of its demand.

Countries across North Africa, including Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, also grow significant domestic crops, but durum wheat production this year is forecast to be smaller, increasing the need for imports.

References:

https://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QCL/visualize

http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/

http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/

http://faostat3.fao.org/

https://web.archive.org/web/20160910234716/http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/Q/QC/E

http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567

https://web.archive.org/web/20160910234716/http://faostat3.fao.org/faostat-gateway/go/to/download/Q/QC/E

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Durum

https://oec.world/en/profile/hs92/durum-wheat

https://www.uswheat.org/wheatletter/what-is-the-outlook-for-world-durum-production/



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